Overview/Background and Causes of Human Rights Violation:

From the period of 1948 to 1991, the system of racial segregation has impacted the state of South Africa. The word, apartheid, means separateness, in Afrikaans.Since the year 1910, South Africa has been characterized by racial segregation. After that time the country's all-white parliament was able to push legislation that limited blacks' participation in political and business jobs of high stature.The policy of apartheid was imposed by the white minority government of South Africa; they hoped to enforce restrictions on the human rights and civil liberties of the black majority.
Even though the British had given South Africa its independence in 1910, only the whites, or Dutch colonists Boers, were able to wield any political power. Before, however, the Natives Land Act of 1913 segregated ownership of land by race; also denied blacks the rights of employment in certain businesses. Even so, there had not been strict enforcement of any segregating laws up until this time. Then, when the 1948 elections brought the National Party to power, it immediately set about implementing laws to make the apartheid a reality. These Population Laws were instituted to classify people as Bantu, colored, and descendants of the Dutch and the British. Other laws dictated where members of each race could live an work or own land.This apartheid gave the greatest advantage to whites; and those of mixed race enjoyed greater privileges and rights than blacks.The apartheid regime then established Bantustans; a small collection of nations within the country's borders set aside for blacks; making them citizens of their land regardless of where they lived.However, these nations were unable to sustain themselves economically and were recognized only by the white South Africa government.White people were given control over more than 80 percent of South Africa's land, even though they made up only 10 percent of the population..


Actions Taken to Improve Situation:

-Various organizations formed to fight for African rights and the protection of them, during the apartheid. In 1955, the group called the Congress of the People, held a summit in a suburb of Soweto. The result was the Freedom Charter, which advocated democratic governance and equal rights regardless of race and gender. The Freedom Charter also called for public ownership of the country's resources; all of which included free health care, education, and the support for the underprivileged.
-After obtaining independence, Kwame Nkrumah, one of the leaders in South Africa, began to work to strengthen the ties with other independent African nations and to help more African countries win the right to govern themselves. A series of conferences were held, to work for a solution; including the Independent African States Conference, and the All-African People's Conference. A proposal during the conference , was to "condemn racialism and tribalism wherever they exist and work for their eradication, and in particular to condemn the apartheid policy of the South African government." In 1960, Nkrumah passed a law that required any South African citizen entering Ghana to sign a document denouncing apartheid before being admitted, and he was partly responsible for South Africa's 1961 withdrawal from the British Commonwealth due to opposition to its apartheid policy.


Current Status:

During the year 1976, violent resistance and aggression against apartheid broke out in the black township of Soweto.The revulsion at the apartheid regime led to South Africa's becoming a virtual pariah state; vulnerable to political and economic systems. In the early 1990s, Prime Minister F. W. de Klerk opened negotiations with Nelson Mandela, an imprisoned leader of the principal black opposition party, the African National Congress. These talks led to the fall of the white-dominated government at the end of the apartheid. South Africa held its first free elections in 1994.


WHY is this Important:

-This is important because the apartheid is a clear indication of the harmful effects of an apartheid, and the lasting effects on the people of South Africa and regions close by. In order to prevent future mishaps such as the apartheid in South Africa, humanity must remember to look back and recall what apartheid and repression has done to the regions of Africa and the divides it has created amongst its peoples today. Because of the conflict between regions where tension still exists today, it is important to realize what toll the apartheid has taken on its people and the strain that has been imposed on South African economy and commerce.


Picture/Cartoon:

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This image is a map of South Africa during the years Apartheid, and political unrest. The map shows the sites of the six non-independent regions and the sites of four idependent homelands; the first being Transkei. The red line shows regions of political unrest.



Video/Link:


EFFECTS OF THE APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA TODAY

so WHAT?

The effects of Black Apartheid in South Africa still exists today; riots are commonplace as the divides of the apartheid have created tension amongst different tribes or groups and ethnic minorities. Clashes between moral conduct and civil rights views have created violence and aggression to form between the Africans. Black activists and leaders misled their groups during the anti-apartheid struggle; promising them liberation and wealth. However, many of these activists were giving empty promises, as they manipulated masses of people, mobilizing them to provide their leaders with power and influence and more importantly wealth. The government's reckless implementation of the affirmative-action policy is forcing many white people to leave the country, creating a skills shortage crisis; condemning the regions of South Africa to poverty and chaos.


Sources:

1) Patterson, A. S. "apartheid and the United Nations." In Pubantz, Jerry, and John Allphin Moore Jr. Encyclopedia of the United Nations, Second Edition. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2008. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE53&iPin=EUNN0018&SingleRecord=True (accessed May 26, 2009).
2) Davis, R. Hunt, ed. "apartheid, 1950s to 1991." Encyclopedia of African History and Culture: Independent Africa (1960 to Present), vol. 5. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2005. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE53&iPin=AHCV0036&SingleRecord=True (accessed May 26, 2009).
3) Horvitz, Leslie Alan, and Christopher Catherwood. "apartheid." Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2006. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE53&iPin=EWCG023&SingleRecord=True (accessed May 27, 2009).
4) "Freedom Charter." Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE53&iPin=ewh6d01&SingleRecord=True (accessed May 28, 2009).
5) Kellner, Douglas. "'The African Independence Movement'." Kwame Nkrumah, World Leaders Past and Present. New York: Chelsea House Publishing, 1987. (Updated 2007.) Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE53&iPin=WLPPKN06&SingleRecord=True (accessed May 28, 2009).
Fig 1445 - Resources and Plans - Kindle South Africa